miércoles, 8 de junio de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura - Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.7-10.45

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.7

ūṣaḥ-kāle sandhyā kari’ tridaśera-nātha
paḍite calena sarva-śiṣya-gaṇa-sātha


After performing His morning rites, the Lord of Tridaśa went to school along with His classmates.


The word tri, or “three,” in the word tridaśera-nātha, in consideration of places, refers to the Bhūr, Bhuvar and Svar planetary systems; in consideration of time, refers to past, present, and future; in consideration of persons, refers to Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Rudra; and the word daśa, in consideration of directions, refers to east, west, north, south, northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest, up, and down. The word tridaśa refers to each of the ten directions—above, center, and below. Otherwise the word tridaśa, in consideration of persons, refers to thirty-three demigods. From the less-intelligent point of view the word tridaśa-purī refers to the heavenly kingdom, and the word tridaśa-nātha refers to Indra, the husband of Śacī. And from the intellectual point of view it refers to Lord Upendra. Some people say that tridaśa refers to the twelve Ādityas, the eleven Rudras, the eight Vasus, and the two Aśvinī-kumāras. Yet others say that each of these thirty-three demigods represent ten million others. According to the learned viewpoint, all these word meanings are included within Viṣṇu.

The phrase śiṣya-gaṇa-sātha indicates that since the disciples of the teacher Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita were more or less subordinate to Nimāi, they respected Him as the principle student and as good as their teacher.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.8

āsiyā vaisena gaṅgādāsera sabhāya
pakṣa-pratipakṣa prabhu karena sadāya


The Lord would sit in Gaṅgādāsa’s class and continually engage in debate.


The word pakṣa refers to two different meanings of one subject. A bird is able to fly in the sky with the help of its two wings; similarly, when there is some doubt about a subject matter, then both sides—the pūrva-pakṣa, or challenging side, and the para-pakṣa, or concluding side—are needed to reach a conclusion. Consistency must be maintained with the para-pakṣa. Each side refers to the other side as the para-pakṣa, or opposing side; or in other words, from an impartial viewpoint, each side is sva-pakṣa, or one’s own side, and from a partial view, each side is an opposing side. The words pakṣa-pratipakṣa refer to debate and counter-debate, favourable and unfavourable questions and answers, one’s own side and the opposing side, or the challenging side and concluding side.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.9

prabhu-sthāne puṅthi cinte nāhi ye-ye-jana
tāhāre se prabhu kadarthena anukṣaṇa


The Lord would always defeat the arguments of anyone who disagreed with His explanations.


The word kadarthana means “to distort the meaning,” “to point out inconsistencies or prove unreasonable,” “to pollute,” “to condemn,” or “to outright reject.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.10

paḍiyā vaisena prabhu puṅthi cintāite
yā’ra yata gaṇa laiyā vaise nānā-bhite


After class, the Lord sat in the midst of His friends to discuss the subjects further.


The word cintāite means “to consider,” “to discuss,” or “to cultivate.” The word nānā-bhite refers to various directions, various sides, or various groups.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.11

nā cinte murāri-gupta puṅthi prabhu-sthāne
ataeva prabhu kichu cālena tāhāne


Murāri Gupta did not care to sit in the Lord’s discussions, therefore the Lord desired to confront him.


The word cālena means “to induce,” “to stun with one’s explanation,” “to remove,” “to dislocate,” “to induce shaking,” “to twirl,” “to condemn or chastise,” or “to pollute or criticize.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.12

yoga-paṭṭa-chānde vastra kariyā bandhana
vaisena sabhāra madhye kari’ vīrāsana


Nimāi wore His cloth like a sannyāsī, and He sat in the vīrāsana posture.


In this verse the word yoga-paṭṭa refers to the way Vedic sannyāsīs wear their cloth. The word yoga-kakṣā is found in Śrīdhara Svāmī’s commentary on Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (4.6.39). The piece of cloth circling tightly around the back and thigh like a belt that a sannyāsī wears is called yoga-paṭṭa. It is stated in the Padma Purāṇa, Kārttika-māhātmya, Chapter 2:

“The piece of cloth that a sannyāsī wears wrapped around his side like a bangle that covers his back and hangs down to his knees is called yoga-paṭṭa.”

The word vīrāsana refers to sitting (like a hero) with one’s left foot on the right thigh and right foot on left thigh. This is explained in Śrīdhara Svāmī’s commentary on the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (4.6.38) wherein he quotes from the yoga-śāstras as follows:

“Placing the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh while placing the left hand on the left thigh and raising the right hand in an argumentative pose is called vīrāsana.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.13

candanera śobhe ūrddhva tilaka su-bhāti
mukutā gañjaye divya-daśanera jyotiḥ


He was smeared with sandalwood pulp and decorated with tilaka. The effulgence of His beautiful teeth condemned that of
a string of pearls.


The word su-bhāti means “effulgent,” “beautiful,” and “pleasing to the eyes.”
The word gañjaye (derived from the Sanskrit verb gañj) means “to condemn,” “to criticize,” or “to cause trouble.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.14

gaurāṅga-sundara veśa madana-mohana
ṣoḍaśa-vatsara prabhu prathama-yauvana


In His fresh youth, at the age of sixteen, Śrī Gaurāṅga’s beauty captivated even Cupid.

Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.15

bṛhaspati jiniñā pāṇḍitya-parakāśa
svatantra ye puṅthi cinte, tā’re kare hāsa


In knowledge, He surpassed Bṛhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods. He would tease those who studied on their own.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.16-18

prabhu bole,—“ithe āche kon baḍa jana?
āsiyā khaṇḍuka dekhi āmāra sthāpana?
sandhi-kārya nā jāniyā kona kona janā
āpane cintaye puṅthi prabodhe āpanā’
ahaṅkāra kari’ loka bhāle mūrkha haya
yebā jāne, tā’ra ṭhāñi puṅthi nā cintaya”


The Lord challenged, “Let us see who is intelligent enough to refute My conclusions. Some students don’t even know the rules of conjunctions, yet they are satisfied to study on their own. Thus they eventually become fools because they do not take help from someone in knowledge.”


The word sthāpana means “conclusion.”
The word bhāle means “due to foreseen faults.”
Nimāi proudly challenged as follows:

“There is no one more intelligent, more learned, and more knowledgeable in Navadvīpa who can refute My conclusions. How surprising it is that although many people do not know the first lesson of grammar, how to join words, by the influence of their false ego they think they will become learned by independently studying their books! But in spite of their false ego, I can see that due to foreseen faults they achieve only foolishness while presenting their answers, because they do not come and study from Me, the Lord of Sarasvatī and object of service for the crest jewels amongst learned scholars.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.19

śunaye murāri-gupta āṭopa-ṭaṅkāra
nā bolaye kichu, kārya kare āpanāra


Hearing Nimāi’s provocative statement, Murāri Gupta did not say anything, but went on with his work.


The phrase āṭopa-ṭaṅkāra is explained as follows: the prefix ā (meaning to envy someone out of false ego or to cause trouble) joins with tup, which means “to be puffed up,” “to be proud,” “to be angry,” or “to be very egoistic;” and the word ṭaṅkāra means “the sound of a bowstring,” “the clanging of armour,” or “to be astonished.” Therefore āṭopa-ṭaṅkāra means “to speak egoistic words with pride or bragging before piercing them with arrow-like words.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.20

tathāpiha prabhu tāṅ’re cālena sadāya
sevaka dekhiyā baḍa sukhī dvija-rāya


Although the Lord was pleased that His servant remained silent, He nevertheless continued to challenge him.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.21

prabhu bole,—“vaidya, tumi ihā kene paḍha?
latā-pātā niyā giyā rogī kara daḍa


He said, “O doctor, why are you studying here?
You should go gather some leaves and herbs to cure the sick.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.22

vyākaraṇa-śāstra ei—viṣamera avadhi
kapha-pitta-ajīrṇa-vyavasthā nāhi ithi


“The literatures on grammar are most difficult to understand, and they do not mention anything about mucus, bile, or indigestion.”


The words viṣamera avadhi mean “ultimately (extremely) difficult.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.23

mane mane cinti’ tumi ki bujhibe ihā?
ghare yāha tumi rogī ḍṛḍha kara giyā”


“What will you learn by studying on your own?
Better you go home and treat the sick.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.24

rudra-aṁśa murāri parama-kharatara
tathāpi nahila krodha dekhi viśvambhara


Murāri Gupta is by nature most harsh, for he is an expansion of Lord Rudra. Still he did not become angry at Viśvambhara.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.25

pratyuttara dilā,—“kene baḍa ta’ ṭhākura?
sabārei cāla’ dekhi’ garvaha pracura?


He replied, “Dear respected sir, why are You so proud?
Why do You challenge everyone?”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.26

sūtra, vṛtti, pāṅji, ṭīkā, yata hena kara
āmā’ jijñāsiyā ki nā pāilā uttara?


“Have You asked me about a sūtra, vṛtti, pāṅjī, or ṭīkā and not received a reply?”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.27

vinā jijñāsiyā bola,—’ki jānis tui’
ṭhākura brāhmaṇa tumi, ki baliba muñi!”


“You have not asked me, yet You claim that I don’t know anything. You are a respected brāhmaṇa, so what can I say?”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.28

prabhu bole,—“vyākhyā kara āji ye paḍilā”
vyākhyā kare gupta, prabhu khaṇḍite lāgilā


The Lord said, “So tell Me what you learned today.”
Then as Murāri began to explain, the Lord began to refute him.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.29

gupta bole eka artha, prabhu bole āra
prabhu-bhṛtye keha kā’re nāre jinibāra


Murāri would give one explanation, and the Lord would give another, yet neither the master nor the servant could defeat the other.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.30

prabhura prabhāve gupta parama-paṇḍita
murārira vyākhyā śuni’ hana haraṣita


By the mercy of the Lord, Murāri Gupta was a great scholar. The Lord was pleased, therefore, to hear his explanations.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.31

santoṣe dilena tāṅ’ra aṅge padma-hasta
murārira deha haila ānanda samasta


In satisfaction, the Lord touched Murāri’s body with His lotus hand and Murāri became filled with ecstasy.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.32

cintaye murāri-gupta āpana-hṛdaye
“prākṛta-manuṣya kabhu e puruṣa nahe


Murāri Gupta thought, “He is certainly not an ordinary person.”


The words prākṛta-manuṣya refers to conditioned souls who are under the control of māyā, or material nature.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.33

emana pāṇḍitya kibā manuṣyera haya?
hasta-sparśe deha haila parānanda-maya


“Can an ordinary human being possess such knowledge?
Just by His touch, my body was filled with ecstasy.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.34-35

cintile ihāna sthāne kichu lāja nāi
emata subuddhi sarva-navadvīpe nāi
santoṣita haiyā bolena vaidya-vara
“cintiba tomāra sthāne, śuna viśvambhara”


“Why should I be embarrassed to study under Him?
In all of Navadvīpa there is no one more intelligent than Him.” Feeling satisfied in this way, the great doctor said, “Listen, Viśvambhara, from now on I will study under You.”


The word cintile means “to practice one’s lessons,” while cintiba means “I will practice my lessons.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.36

ṭhākure sevake hena-mate kari’ raṅge
gaṅgā-snāne calilena laiyā saba saṅge


After this pleasing exchange between the Lord and His servant, Nimāi and His friends went to take bath in the Ganges.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.37

gaṅgā-snāna kariyā calilā prabhu ghare
ei-mata vidyā-rase īśvara vihare


After finishing His bath, the Lord went home. Thus the Supreme Lord enjoyed the life of a student.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.38

mukunda-sañjaya baḍa mahā-bhāgyavān
yāṅhāra ālaye vidyā-vilāsera sthāna


The Lord opened His school at the house of the most fortunate Mukunda Sañjaya.


Mukunda Sañjaya was a resident of Śrī Navadvīpa and the father of Puruṣottama Sañjaya. In the vast Caṇḍī-maṇḍapa of his house, Nimāi Paṇḍita taught grammar and similar subjects to him, his son, and various other students. In this regard one may see Ādi-khaṇḍa, Chapter 12, verses 72 and 91, Chapter 15, verses 5-7, 32-33, and 70-71, and Madhya-khaṇḍa, Chapter 1, verses 127-130.
CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.39

tāhāna putrere prabhu āpane paḍāya
tāṅhāra o tāṅ’ra prati bhakti sarvathāya


His son, Puruṣottama Sañjaya, became the Lord’s student. He also had great devotion for the Lord.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.40

baḍa caṇḍi-maṇḍapa āchaye tā’na ghare
catur-dike vistara paḍuyā taṅhi dhare


There was a large Caṇḍī-maṇḍapa in the courtyard of his house. That hall had the capacity to hold many students.


The word caṇḍi-maṇḍapa refers to a hall within the courtyard of a Hindu householder wherein worship and recitation of prayers to Caṇḍī, or Durgā, is performed. It is also called devī-gṛha, “house of the goddess,” or ṭhākura-dālāna, “hall of the gods.” This place is generally offered to guests for their sitting.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.41

goṣṭhī kari’ tāṅhāi paḍāna dvija-rāja
sei sthāne gaurāṅgera vidyāra samāja


Lord Gaurāṅga, the king of the brāhmaṇas, used to divide His students in groups and teach them in that hall.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.42

kata-rūpe vyākhyā kare, kata vā khaṇḍana
adhyāpaka-prati se ākṣepa sarva-kṣaṇa


Nimāi would give various explanations and refutations as He continually derided the other teachers.


The word ākṣepa (found in alaṅkāra-śāstra) means “chastisement,” “condemnation,” “pollution,” and “pointing out one’s faults.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.43

prabhu kahe,—“sandhi-kārya-jñāna nāhi yā’ra
kali-yuge ‘bhaṭṭācārya’ padavī tāhāra


The Lord said, “In the age of Kali, one who doesn’t even know the rules of conjunctions is still given the title of Bhaṭṭācārya.”


Accepting the title “Bhaṭṭācārya” (a learned scholar of the śrutis, nyāya, or mīmāṁsā) without going through the primary lessons of sandhi, or joining words, as found in children’s grammar, is irrational, the basis of irreligiousity, and possible only in Kali-yuga. This is confirmed in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (12.3.38) as follows: dharmaṁ vakṣyanty adharma-jñā adhiruhyottamāsanam—“Those who know nothing about religion will mount a high seat and presume to speak on religious principles.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.44

hena jana dekhi phāṅki baluka āmāra!
tabe jāni ‘bhaṭṭa’-’miśra’ padavī sabāra


“Let them refute My explanations, then I will accept them as actual Bhaṭṭācāryas and Miśras.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.45

ei-mata vaikuṇṭha nāyaka vidyā-rase
krīḍā kare, cinite nā pāre kona dāse


In this way the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha sportingly enjoyed His life as a scholar, yet none of His servants could recognize Him.

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